Diagnosis and Treatment of Uveitis to Prevent Blindness

Ratna Sitompul
April 2016  •  DOI: 10.23886/ejki.4.5913.60-70


Uveitis is an inflammation of the uvea which may result in blindness. Uveitis may be caused by limited inflamation of the uveal tract, manifestation of systemic diseases (autoimmune, infection, cancer), expansion of inflammation in the cornea and sclera, trauma or idiopathic. Anterior uveitis is an inflammation of the iris and cilliary body with symptoms of pain, red eye, photophobia, and decrease in visual acuity. Intermediate uveitis is the inflammation of the pars plana and frequently involves anterior vitreous and posterior uveitis. Clinical manifestation of intermediate uveitis is usually mild without red eye and pain, however vision may decrease due to macular edema and cell aggregation in vitreous. Posterior uveitis is an inflammation involving choroid layer, which is common in developing countries due to high prevalence of infectious diseases (toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, HIV, syphilis). Patient may complain of blurry vision but not accompanied by pain, red eye, and photophobia. Complications of posterior uveitis are cataract, glaucoma, macular edema, keratopathy, turbidity of vitreous, retinal detachment, and optic nerve atrophy. The prognosis of posterior uveitis is worse than anterior uveitis. Panuveitis is an inflammation of the uvea and surrounding structures (retina, vitreous). Diagnosis is made based on anamnesis, ophthalmic examination, laboratory examination, and imaging. Treatment of uveitis is intended to reduce inflammation, minimize structural destruction, prevent blindness, reduce pain and photophobia. Corticosteroid and immunosuppresant are the drugs of choice to manage the inflammation, where NSAID is used to reduce pain and cyclopegic administration to prevent posterior synechiae. Antimicrobial is given if uveitis is caused by infection. Underlying diseases of uveitis must be treated comprehensively to prevent further progression, complications and blindness. .

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