Dampak Kesehatan dan Ekonomi Perilaku Merokok Dl Indonesia
Indonesia is the fifth largest country in the world for tobacco consumption. Objective of the study is to estimate the health and economic impact of smoking behavior in 2005. Data used include National Socio economic Survey 2004, National Health Survey 2004, Population Projection for 2005, Medical expenditures of diseases related to tobacco collected from central government hospitals in Jakarta and the Indonesian Abridged Life Table. Global Burden of Disease method is used to estimate the disease burden. The results show that in 2005, about 399,800 people died due to diseases related to tobaccoor about 26% of total deaths (1,539,288). About 3, 846,373 DALYs (productive years) were lost due to premature mortality and 1,502,900 DALYs were lost due to morbidity and disability. The macro-economic loss due to tobacco was estimated in the amount of 44 Trillion Rupiahs and total medical expenditure due to tobacco was estimated in the amount of 2 Trillion rupiahs. Average cigarette consumption per person per day was 11 sticks or 330 sticks per month. Total budget spent in one month was Rp. 165,000 or equal to 20 days of income, based on Regional Minimum Wages (in Jakarta) of Rp. 8, 000 per person per day. It is concluded that smoking behavior produces negative health and economic impact at macro level aswell as at individual level. Therefore Cost-effective policies to control tobacco as suggested in the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control can reduce the negative impact of smoking behavior.