The Social and Economic Burden of Smog in Pakistan

smog has reached unhealthy levels as per the us consulate readings earlier last month. the thick blanket of black smog engulfed lahore, leading to residents gasping for air and complaining of eye and ...


Ruptured Unilateral Twin Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy. Case Report of an Oddity & Literature Review

background: an ectopic pregnancy (ep) is a type of conception in which, the fertilized egg is lodged outside the uterine cavity. twin ectopic pregnancies are a rarity, and the reported cases of twin t...


The Economic Impact of Lower Extremity Amputations in Diabetics. a Retrospective Study From a Tertiary Care Hospital of Faisalabad, Pakistan

background: among the various complications of diabetes, lower-extremity amputation due to diabetic foot is a common problem. in pakistan, 6-7% of patients with diabetes suffer from diabetic foot ulce...


Retrospective Autopsy Based Analysis of Nature and Prevalence of Fatal Injuries in Lahore

bacckground: autopsy is a medical examination conducted after death to ascertain the cause of death. for clinical autopsies, the permission of the next of kin is required. in suspicious deaths, an aut...


Relative Odds of Neck Pain to Helmet Use Among Motorcyclists: a Case-Control Study

background: neck pain is a widespread problem among motorcyclists, which is often neglected. there is limited research on the motorcycle's ergonomics, particularly in the context of the interaction be...


Anatomical Variations of Radial Artery-Its Morphology and Clinical Implications

background: the radial artery is the smaller terminal branch of the brachial artery. it is one of the most commonly used arteries for various interventions. anatomical variations exist and can predisp...


Professional Secrecy and Privileged Communication in Medical Practice

a medical professional has the faith and confidence of society in him/her. it is his utmost duty and responsibility to uphold the ethical standards of confidentiality, set forth in the hippocratic oat...


Prevalence of Muscle Dysmorphia and Associated Health Activities in Male Medical Students in Karachi, Pakistan

background: muscle dysmorphia (md) is a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder (bdd) and is currently classified under anxiety disorders (subheading: obsessive-compulsive disorder) in dsm 5. md is hypoth...


Predatory Journals: a Literature Review

background: predatory publishing is an exploitative fraudulent open-access publishing model. most predatory journals do not follow policies that are set forth by organizations including the world asso...


Acute-on-chronic Liver Failure: MELD Score 30-day Mortality Predictability and Etiology in a Pakistani Population

background: cirrhosis is a pathological condition that ultimately leads to liver failure. acute on chronic liver failure (aclf) has a high short term mortality rate. viral hepatitis is the most common...


Correlation of Atrial Fibrillation with Left Atrial Volume in Patients with Mitral Stenosis. a Single Centre Study From Pakistan

background: rheumatic heart disease has a strong association with mitral valve stenosis. atrial fibrillation is one of the most common complications of this condition and is a poor prognostic factor. ...


Fungi - an Amalgam of Toxins and Antibiotics: a Mini- Review

fungi are eukaryotes with many functions. earlier, fungi were classified in the plant kingdom but were later classified as a separate kingdom due to their unique cell walls. fungi are heterotrophs lik...


Analysis of Essential Medicines Used for Emergency Care in Pakistan

introduction: according to the world health organization (who), essential medicines (em) have the ability to meet the health care needs of maximum individuals. high accessibility to essential medicine...


Empathy and Role Modeling. is IT Missing?

let me start by congratulating the dedicated team of pakistan journal of surgery and medicine (pjsm) whose untiring effort brought this journal of international standard. i have the honor to be part o...


Emerging Global Health Crisis of Our Times- Climate Change

the progress of the human race over the last 200 years is unprecedented in recent history. rapid industrialization, urbanization, and consumerism have made lives easier for humankind. still, these cha...


Awareness of Swine Flu Among the Medical Students of Shaikh Zayed Medical College Rahim Yar Khan

bacckground: swine flu is a viral disease affecting upper as well as lower respiratory tracts. due to limited resources in a developing country like pakistan, medical students (the future medical prac...


Hyperparathyroidism Presenting as Acute Pancreatitis: Case Report of Mortality

background: acute pancreatitis may be caused by a myriad of factors, hypercalcemia secondary to hyperparathyroidism, albeit is a rare cause of acute pancreatitis but not unheard of. if the underlying ...


A Rare Case of Foreign Body Ingestion, Mimicking as Mesenteric Cyst. "Case Report"

background: foreign body ingestion by children is a commonly encountered problem and accounts for a significant emergency visits among pediatric population. although these ingested foreign bodies pass...


The Novel Coronavirus Outbreak: a Challenge Beyond Borders

coronaviruses infect mammals and birds worldwide, and some of these viruses infect humans to cause mild to moderate lower-respiratory tract illnesses and rarely a severe illness. like other viruses, c...



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